The Disney Manual

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The Walt Disney Company is an American global media company, based in Burbank, California, that owns broadcast networks,  cable networks, film studios, production companies, radio stations, real-estate, video game studios, and theme parks.  The company also develops video games and licenses its properties for toys, books, and many other consumer goods.

The Walt Disney Company, which is commonly known as “Disney,”  was founded on October 16, 1923 by Walt and Roy Disney.  Walt Disney,  along with Ub Iwerks, created cartoons that featured the beloved Micky Mouse that became so successful that they paved the way for everything that The Walt Disney Company is today.  Disney is a publicly traded and owned by its share holders with The Lauren Powell Jobs Trust, which is controlled by Steve Job’s widow Lauren Powell Jobs, as the largest share holder.

FILM STUDIOS

Disney Pictures, Pixar, Buena Vista, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, Disney Animation Studios, Fox Searchlight Pictures, and 20th Century Fox.

CABLE NETWORKS

Disney Channel, Disney XD, A & E Network (partnership with Hearst Corporation), History Network, H2, FX, FXX, FXM, ESPN, Freeform, and Lifetime (partnership with Hearst Corporation)

BROADCAST NETWORKS

ABC and FOX

SUBSCRIPTION BASED STREAMING SERVICES

Hulu and FX+

RADIO NETWORKS: 

ABC Radio Networks and Radio Disney

FILM STUDIOS

Disney Pictures, Pixar, Buena Vista, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, Disney Animation Studios, Fox Searchlight Pictures, and 20th Century Fox.

RECORD COMPANIES

Hollywood Records and Walt Disney Records

THEME PARKS AND DESTINATIONS

Theme Parks and Destinations: Walt Disney World Resort (Florida), Disneyland Resort (California), Disney Cruise Line Aulani Resort (Hawaii), Disney Vacation Club, Adventures by Disney, Disneyland Resort (Paris), Tokyo Disney Resort, Hong Kong Disneyland Resort, Shanghai Disney Resort, Disney Cruise Line, and Adventures by Disney

VIDEO GAME STUDIOS

Disney Interactive Studios

The Netflix Manual

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Much of the media that is consumed is done so by way of streaming, which is a relatively new technology as we know it today.  Streaming was actually envisioned in the 1920s, but the concept laid dormant until the 1990s when computer technology could accommodate it.  Microsoft, Real Networks, Adobe, and Apple were among the companies that developed it into what would lay the groundwork for a company such as YouTube to completely demonstrate and capitalize on its power. However, Netflix was the first company to harness the power of streaming to build a wildly successful subscription-based business model that the biggest media companies had to follow.

The Legend of why Netflix exists, which may or may not be true, is that Blockbuster video pissed Reed Hastings, the founder of Netflix, off.  Reed tells the story that he rented the film “Apollo 13” on DVD from Blockbuster and had to pay $40 in fees when he returned it late. He basically vowed “never again” and thought of a system that would allow consumers to select DVDs online and have them shipped directly to their homes.  Netflix Subscribers would pay a low monthly fee for multiple rentals and people could send the DVDs back wherever they wanted so other DVDs could be shipped. Most importantly, there was no late fee. That was an entirely new concept and until that time movie lovers had to travel to Blockbuster Video and other similar locations to rent new films. People love convenience and Netflix began to thrive while the Blockbuster Video store rental model became nearly extinct. Reed had unintentionally gotten his revenge on Blockbuster for their late fees.

 In 1997, Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph founded Netflix as a DVD rental company that allowed consumers to select movies online and have them shipped as DVDs directly to their homes. That was entirely new and until that time movie lovers had to travel to Blockbuster Video and other similar locations to rent new films, which were not on cable, on DVDs or VHS cassettes. People love convenience and Netflix began to thrive while the Blockbuster Video store rental model became nearly extinct. (need numbers)

Just as Netflix was right about the prediction that people would rather have DVDs mailed directly to them instead of traveling to stores, they figured that people would like to instantly stream movies and TV shows even better. So, in 2007 they began streaming content from their website. They soon utilized the popularity of iPads, iPhones, PlayStations, XBOXs, etc. as means for customers to download the Netflix App and stream movies and TV shows directly to their mobile devices and TV screens. Subscriptions went through the roof (numbers) and in 2009 they had (numbers) DVD rental customers and (numbers) streaming customers.

Netflix continued to look to the future and realized that it was a flawed business model to be solely dependent on streaming other companies’ content, which they had to pay hefty licensing fees for. Additionally, other streaming services, such as HBO Go,  would be able to offer a wider selection of newer content to their streaming customers, resulting in more competition. Netflix realized that they truly had to differentiate themselves from their upcoming competition and figured the best way to do that was to offer their customers exclusive content that was produced in-house. They were in a perfect position turn themselves into a film studio because they were cash rich with access to millions of subscribers already using their app and website, as an already established powerful distribution platform.

Netflix invested money into their own productions and snagged top talent to write, produce, star, and direct their first major original series “House of Cards.”  The show became a hit and its multiple Emmy wins confirmed that its quality was indistinguishable from the best network and cable shows. Its success paved the way for “Orange is the New Black,” “Stranger Things,” “Jessica Jones,” “Luke Cage,” “The Crown,” “DareDevil,” “Black Mirror,” “Godless,” “Castlevania,” “Ozark,” and other top shows watched by millions. Netflix also became a place where canceled or shelved TV shows with cult followings, such as  “Arrested Development” and “Longmire,”  and “Voltron (2017)” could be resurrected.

Netflix single handedly proved how successful a subscription-based streaming service could be. They leapfrogged head of Youtube (launched in 2005), the company that revolutionized streaming video and offered streaming film rentals,  and Amazon’s Unbox Service (launched in 2006), which allowed viewers to download full-length films and would later become the streaming services Amazon Video on Demand and then Prime Video. They even bested the content creation giants– the major studios: 20th Century Fox (now Disney), NBC Universal (Comcast), and Warner Brothers (now AT&T) who joined forces to create Hulu in 2006.  However, they have failed to gain the same market share and as of 2019, Hulu has less than 30 million subscribers and Netflix has over 100 million global subscribers.

CBS stood alone from the pack and launched its subscription service CBS All Access in 2014 that allowed consumers to stream all current and past CBS content at $5.99 (ad supported) and $9.99 (ad-free) price points.  The service released its first original programming in 2017 with The Good Fight (2017) and Star Trek: Discovery (2017). Currently, All Access has 2 million subscribers. 

In 2010, HBO launched HBO Go, which allowed its current customers to stream all HBO content at no additional cost.  In 2015, that service was followed by HBO Now, which allowed anyone with internet access to watch all HBO content for a $14.99/mo fee. This was a highly significant change to HBO’s business model because the focus on streaming made it possible for HBO to offer its service directly consumers for the first time without the need for a cable TV subscription, making them an autonomous distribution platform like Netflix.

 All of the major content providers had to follow Netflix’s example and begin streaming their content via their own apps or via their cable provider’s apps.

 Many other services such as Showtime Now (CBS), Shudder (AMC), DC Universe (AT&T), Britbox (BBC and ITV) also have subscription-based streaming services. Even YouTube, which was the first company based solely on streaming content, began to create their own original content for their YouTube Premium platform.

 

The Basketball Manual

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Basketball is a sport between two teams that takes place on a basketball court. Each team must score At the end of the game, the winner is the team that scores the most points by putting the basketball into the other team’s basket. Each NBA basketball game has four 12 minute quarters (48 minutes) and a 15 minute halftime period that takes place between the second and third quarters. However, games are NEVER 63 minutes long because the clock is stopped for timeouts and foul shots.

 

THERE ARE 30 NBA TEAMS

There are 30 Football teams with 15 in the Eastern Conference  and 15 in the Western Conference. Both conferences have three divisions with five teams in each.

 

THERE ARE 11 PLAYERS ON A BASKETBALL TEAM, BUT ONLY 5 CAN BE ON THE COURT DURING GAMEPLAY

A BASKETBALL COURT IS 94 FEET LONG BY 50 FEET WIDE

A BASKETBALL GAME IS SUPPOSED TO BE  63 MINUTES LONG, BUT IT NEVER IS

A basketball game is has four 12 minute quarters (48 minutes) and a 15 minute half time, making an NBA game 63 minutes in length. However the game is generally much longer than that because of time outs, the game clock stopping between plays,  and commercial breaks. 

 

EACH TEAM PLAYS 82 GAMES DURING THE NBA REGULAR SEASON

Each team plays a total of 82 games during the regular season with the possibly to play an undetermined number more in the post season. In total, there are 1230 games played during the NBA regular season when every game is counted. 

THE JUMPBALL AND FIRST POSSESION

Each Basketball game beings with a jump ball. That is when the starting five players of each team gathered at the middle of the basketball court where the home team’s logo is. The referee stands in the center of the court in between the players and tosses the ball into the air. The tallest player on each team jumps into the air to claim the ball or to tap it to one of their teammates. The player who gets that ball secures the first possession and chance to score a basket for their team, putting them on offense while the other team is on defense.

Once a team has possession of the ball, they have 24 seconds to make a basket and that time is monitored by shot clocks that are on top of the baskets, jumbotron, and at the scorer’s table. If they attempt a shot and shoot a “brick,” which means they miss but manage to hit the backboard or rim, but manage to get the rebound, the shot clock is reset to 14 seconds. If the team shoots an airball and get the ball without making another shot or no shot is made before 24 seconds expire, the team has committed a turnover and the other team gets possession of the ball.

While the offense is doing everything they can to make a shot, the team on defense must do everything that can to stop them from scoring without making extreme physical contact with the opposing players. They can block shots, steal the ball, or deny all scoring options until the shot clock expires.

After a team scores or loses possession of the ball, they are no longer on offense and are now on defense. The team that was on defense gets possession of the ball, is now on offense, and has a chance to score a basket. Teams switch between offense and defense countless times throughout the game.

During the course of a game, the ball will exchange hands hundreds of times, time outs will be taken by both teams, fouls will be committed, foul shots will be taken, and anywhere upwards of 80 points will be scored. At the end of all of that, the team with the most points wins.

There are 30 NBA teams, that are divided equally between the Eastern Conference and Western Conference. Each of those leagues has three divisions with five teams in each. In the Easteren Conference, there are the Atlantic, Central, and Southeast Divisions. In the Western Conference, there are the Northwest, Pacific, and Southwest Divisions. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION TEAMS

TORONTO RAPTORS

PHILADEPHIA 76ERS

BROOKLYN NETS

NEW YORK KNICKS

BOSTON CELTICS

CENTRAL DIVISION TEAMS

MILWAUKEE BUCKS

INDIANA PACERS

DETROIT PISTONS

CHICAGO BULLS

CLEVELAND CAVALIERS

SOUTHEAST DIVISON TEAMS

MIAMI HEAT

ORLANDO MAGIC

CHAROLETTE HORNETS

WASHINGTON WIZARDS

ATLANTA HAWKS

NORHTWEST TEAMS

ATLANTA BRAVES

MIAMI MARLINS

NY METS

PHILADELPHIA PHILLYS

WASHINGTON NATIONALS

PACIFIC TEAMS

GOLDEN STATE WARRIORS

LOS ANGELES CLIPPERS

SACRAMENTO KINGS

LOS ANGELES LAKERS

PHEONIX SUNS

SOUTHWEST TEAMS

HOUSTON ROCKETS

SAN ANTONIO SPURS

NEW ORLEANS PELICANS

MEMPHIS GRIZZLIES

SAN FRANCISCO GIANTS

Field Goal (2 POINTS)

This is the most popular way of scoring and can be a layup, dunk, or jump shot. All that is required is that it is made from within the 3-point line. 

3 Pointer (3 POINTS)

This shot takes place from behind the three point line and was once an elusive tool of NBA guards. Now, because of Steph Curry the 3 pointer is used to spread the defense because of it’s increased percentage make it so the defense must rush out to the perimeter to contest it. Since that is the case, all players, including centers, feel they need to develop 3 point shots so they are not at a consitent disadvantage. 

Foul Shot (1 POINT)

A foul shot is taken when a player fouls another player or make a violation. Each foul shot is ALWAYS worth one point and is taken at the foul line. 

The Playoffs

After each team plays 82 regular season games, the top 8 from the Eastern Conference and the top 8 from the Western Conference, for a total of 16 teams, go to the playoffs.  The goal of the playoffs is to decide who is the best team in the East and the West so those two teams can battle it so the winner can be named as the NBA Champion.

Eastern and Western Conference Finals 

These games decide who the best teams in the east and west and the first round beings with eight teams in each conference. That is a five game series and the first team who wins 3 games wins. The four teams who win their series in the first round advance to the Eastern and Western Semifinals. That is eight game series the four winning teams of the first round face off. The two winners of that round go to the conference finals to decide who the best teams in the East and West.

NBA Finals

The two winners of the Eastern and Western conference finals go to the NBA finals.  The NBA finals is an eight game series and the first team to win five games win and is crowned the NBA Champion.

Point Gaurd

The point guard is the primary ball handler of the team and should have the best playmaking, passing, and dribbling skills. They often call plays and set up the offense at the beginning of a possession or when there is a decision to pull back from a fast break.

Shooting Gaurd

The shooting guard makes up the backcourt with the point guard and is supposed to be the best outside shooter of the team with the ability to sink threes. They are often expected to be instant offense and primarily on the court to score.

Center

The center is generally the tallest and largest player on a team with the ability to rebound, block shots and control the paint. Traditionally, they were expected to dominate and finish plays in the paint with a close-range shot or even a dunk without being highly mobile or having great ball handling skills. Now, many centers are highly mobile, can dribble., and can sink a few threes every now and then.

Power Forward

The power forward is similar to the center and can play in the post, grab rebounds, block shots and take mid-range and short range shots. But unlike the traditional centers, they are supposed to be highly mobile and capable of snatching as many rebounds as possible.

Small Forward

The small forward is smaller and quicker than the power forward but generally bigger than the traditional guard. Many times the small forward is a skilled ball handler and passer and can muscle to the basket in ways that may be harder than a traditional guard.

Point Gaurd

While on defense, the gaurd defends the other gaurd in the man to man defense. gaurd are generally not exopected to block shots or defend in the paint, but they are expected to get steals and try to keep the gaurd out of the paint. 

Shooting Gaurd

While on defense, the shooting gaurd basically has the same duties as the point gaurd aside from the fact they are expected to gaurd the other shooting gaurd. 

Center

While on defense, the center is exected to be the main defender in the paint. They are supposed to defend drives in the paint, block shots, and get rebounds.

Power Forward

While on defense, the power forward is supposed to be an extenion of what the center does but beyond the paint. They are expeted to stop drives within the paint and deep within the three point line, black shots, get rebouds, and possibly steals. 

Small Forward

While on defense, the power forward is, once again a smaller version of the power forward. Since that is the case, they are expected to perferm the same defensive duties as their larger counterparts.

Baseball Manual

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Baseball is a sport between two dueling teams of nine players that takes place on a baseball field (diamond). The winner is the team that scores the most runs after nine innings. A run is scored every time a runner makes it past the first, second, and third bases and returns to home plate after a hitting a ball into the infield, outfield, or entirely out of the park (a homerun). 

There are nine innings in a game.

There are nine players on each team.

There is no set length of each game, but most games last around two hours.

Each game of baseball has a standard of nine innings and goes into extra innings if the score is tied after the initial nine.

Every baseball game begins with the away team at bat while the home team is on the field on defense. Each batter begins at home base ready to hit a single, double, triple, or, at best, a home run out of the park so they can score a run after running past all three bases (first, second, and third) to make it back to home plate.

Each batter has three tries to swing the bat and hit fair pitches. When the batter properly smacks the ball it is, of course, called a hit. However, in order for a batter to get an actual hit, it must land on the field without being caught or thrown to first base before the runner reaches it. If either of those two happen, the batter is out. There is also one more requirement for a ball to be a hit: it must remain within the two foul poles.

Some batters may get a hit and make it to base and others will not. There is no limit to as many hits a team can get during an inning, but when three batters strike out their portion of the inning is over and the other team is at bat with a chance to get a hit.

After nine innings the game is over and the team with the most runs wins. If the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings must be played. This is not a situation where the first team who scores will win like in football. Instead, complete innings must be played until a team is able to score enough runs to take and hold the lead when the entire inning is over. If there is a tie at the end of an inning, another inning must be played.

There are 30 Major League teams, that are divided equally between the Naitonal League  (NL) and American League  (AL). Each of those leagues has thre divisions with five teams in each. In the NL there is the NL East, NL Central, and NL West. In the AL there is the AL East, AL Central, and AL West.  

AL EAST TEAMS

BALTIMORE ORIELS

BOSTON REDSOX

NEW YORK YANKEES

TAMPA BAY BLUE RAYS

TORONTO BLUE JAYS

AL CENTRAL

CHICAGO WHITE SOX

CLEVELAND INDIANS

DETROIT TIGERS

KANSAS CITY ROYALS

MINNESOTA TWINS

AL WEST

SEATTLE MARINERS

HOUSTON ASTROS

LOS ANGELES ANGELS

TEXAS RANGERS

OAKLAND ATHLETICS

AL EAST

ATLANTA BRAVES

MIAMI MARLINS

NY METS

PHILADELPHIA PHILLYS

WASHINGTON NATIONALS

AL CENTRAL

CHICAGO CUBS

CINCINNATI REDS

MILWAUKEE BREWERS

PITTSBURGH PIRATES

ST. LOUIS CARDINALS

AL WEST

ARIZONA DIAMOND BACKS

COLORADO ROCKIES

LOS ANGELES DODGERS

SAN DIEGO PADRES

SAN FRANCISCO GIANTS

The BATTER’s Perspective

There is only one offensive position in baseball: The batter! The batter/hitter’s job is to hit the ball out into the field without it being caught or thrown to a base in time for them to be tagged out. If the ball is caught while it is in the air, the hitter is immediately out. If the ball lands and then caught by a defensive player, the defensive player has a chance to throw the ball to the base that the running is advancing to or must return to (more on that later). If the throw beats the runner to the base and is caught, the runner is out (more on that later).

A hitter can get a “base hit” that allows them to get to first base, a “double” that allows them to get to second based, or a “triple” that allows them to get to third base. Those are all great, but the batter really wants to hit the ball out of the park, which is a “homerun” that immediately scores a run. Beyond that, the absolute best thing a batter can do is to hit a “grand slam” when the bases are loaded, meaning there is a runner at each base, and a home run brings the batter and all three runners home, scoring four runs on one play.

 

The Pitcher’s Perspective

The pitcher’s main job is to throw the batter three good pitches that fall within the strike zone. The catch is that they have to be thrown so well that the  batter misses or does not swing at them. The strike zone is “the area over home plate from the midpoint between a batter’s shoulders and the top of the uniform pants — when the batter is in his stance and prepared to swing at a pitched ball — and a point just below the kneecap.”

The Strike Zone

The strike zone is called that because every time a pitcher throws a pitch into the strike zone, and the batter misses or does not swing, is called a “strike.” Once a pitcher throws three strikes to a batter, the batter has “struck out” and must return the dugout, defeated without taking base.

All pitches that are not thrown into the strike zone are considered unhittable and officially called “balls.” Surprisingly, a ball is not always a bad thing when it is not simply a mistake. In fact, a pitcher usually intentionally throws a batter a few balls  in hopes of getting the batter to slip up and swing at them. That’s because, no matter if a pitch is a ball or thrown within the strike zone, it becomes a “strike” if the batter swings at it and misses or a “hit” if the batter connects with and gets a base hit, double, triple, or home run. However, a pitcher can only throw three balls every time a pitcher is at bat. The fourth ball causes a “walk” and the batter takes  first base without getting a base hit and the pitcher looses that mini battle. If that was not the case, the pitcher could throw and endless stream of “bad” pitches and the game would go on forever. 

Pitchers may intentionally walk a batter by throwing four balls when that know it will be very hard to strikeout a powerful hitter. In that case, the pitcher would rather have the batter take first base instead of possibly smacking a homerun out of the park.

 The other way a pitcher can walk a batter is by hitting them with the ball. That is a deterrent to stop pitchers from hitting batters on purpose.

 

the baseman’s perspective

No matter if a ball is hit or thrown to them, the primary purpose of the basemen is to be ready to tag a player out when they are headed to their base. Aside from that, they are supposed to be ready to catch all balls that are hit towards them and throw it to correct place to hopefully help get an out or stop a player from advancing to another base.

the outfielder’s perspective

The primary job of ALL outfielders is to catch the balls that are hit into the outfield while they are in the air to immediately get a hitter out. However, that is not always possible. Some balls are hit into the ground and roll out into the outfield past the short stop or basemen, or they are hit perfectly in places where an outfielder can’t get to quickly enough.

When an outfielder cannot catch a ball that is in the air, they have to get it while it is on the ground or during a bounce and then throw it to the correct base in hopes that the baseman will catch it in time and tag the runner out.  Sometimes, an outfielder will be so deep in the field that they do not have the strength to accurately throw the ball to the correct base. When that happens, they may throw the ball to a teammate in between them and the base and that player is much closer to the target and can accurate throw the ball to the base to get the runners out.

The Football Manual

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Football is an insanely popular game of speed, strength, strategy, and accuracy. To some people, it is a darn near religion, and service is held every Sunday in front of a flatscreen during the NFL season.  The purpose of football is to score more touchdowns (six points), field goals (3 points), and extra points (1 and 2 points)  than the other team while on the 100-yard football field. The fun and challenge of the sport are that you have got to be able to run, throw, tackle, and catch in spectacular ways in order to get the job done. Not a second of the game is easy and the chance to be knocked on your butt is always just inches away.

 

THERE ARE 32 FOOTBALL TEAMS

There are 32 Football teams. 16 are in the American Football Conference (AFC) and 16 are in the National Football Conference (NFC). Both conferences have four divisions with four teams in each.

 

THERE CAN BE AS MANY AS 53 FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON A TEAM, BUT ONLY 11 CAN BE ON THE FIELD

Each NFL football team can only have 11 players on the field during plays. However, a football team can have up to 53 players. 

 

A FOOTBALL FEILD IS 100 YARDS IN LENGTH

A football field is always said to be 100 yards in length, which is divided into ten-yard increments, and 53 and 1/3 yards wide. However, it is 120 yards in length when the two ten yard end zones are counted.

 

A FOOTBALL GAME IS SUPPOSED TO BE  72 MINUTES LONG, BUT IT NEVER IS 

A football game is has four 15 minute quarters (60 minutes) and a 12 minute half time, making an NFL football game 72 minutes in length. However the game is generally much longer than that because of time outs, the game clock stopping between plays,  and commercial breaks. 

 

EACH TEAM PLAYS 16 GAMES AND THERE ARE 10 PLAYOFF GAMES

Each team plays a total of 16 games during the regular season and 10 games are played during the postseason/playoffs. The last game of the playoffs is the NFL championship game– The Super Bowl, which is one of the most watched US sporting events. When all of the games bewteen all of the teams are counted, there are 256 games in total.

 

THE COIN TOSS AND THE FIRST KICKOFF

Each game begins with the coin toss and kickoff. During the coin toss, the captains from each team and a referee go to the center of the football field. While there, the visiting team has the choice to call heads or tails before the ref tosses a coin in the air. If the visiting team captain choose what side the coin lands on correctly, they can choose if they want to receive or kick the ball. If they get it wrong, the other team decides. Most times, the winner of the toss wants the chance to score first, so they choose to have the ball kicked to them.

POSSESIONS AND DOWNS

When a team gets possession of the ball, they have four tries, which are known as downs, to move the ball at least ten yards closer to the goal line. If they are able to move the ball at least ten years during those four downs/chances, the downs reset and they have four more chances to move the ball forward another ten yards.

TOUCHDOWNS, FEILD GOALS, AND EXTRA POINTS

When a team gets the ball into the other team’s in zone, they have scored a touchdown and receive 6 points.  After a touchdown is scored, the scoring team lines up ten yards behind the goal line where they have two choices: 1. Score a one-point conversion, which is a field goal from the 2-yard line and worth one point. 2. Score a two-point conversion, which is another touchdown from the 2 yard line that’s worth, you guessed it, two points.  They only have one chance to do either and no matter if they are successful or not the possession of the ball is turned over to the other team where the kicker must kicker kicks the ball down the field to the other team from the 20-yard line.

KICKOFF

The team who has scored the touch down and attempted the one or two point conversion, not matter if it is successful or not, must kick the ball to the other team from the 20 yard line.  The team was last on defense is now offense and must be ready to receive the ball. When they recive the ball,  three things can happen: 1 They catch the ball and try to run it as far as they can up the field. 2. they catch the ball behind the 20-yard line and take a knee. If they do that, they automatically being the next play at the 20-yard line.

There are 32 NFL football teams, that are divided equally between the American Football Conference (AFC) and National Football Conference (NFC). Each of those conferences has four divisions with four teams in each. In the AFC there is the AFC East, AFC North, AFC South, and AFC West. In the NFC there is the NFC East, NFC North, NFC South, and NFC West.  

AMERICAN FOOTBALL CONFERENCE

AFC EAST TEAMS

NEW ENGLAND PATRIOTS

MIAMI DOLPHINS

BUFFALO BILLS

NEW YORK JETS

AFC NORTH TEAMS

BALTIMORE RAVENS

PITTSBURGH STEALERS

CLEVELAND BROWNS

CINCINATTI BANGLES

AFC SOUTH TEAMS

HOUSTON TEXANS

INDIANAPOLIS COLTS

TENNESSEE TITANS

JACKSONVILLE JAGUARS

AFC WEST TEAMS

KANSAS CITY CHIEFS

LOS ANGELES CHARGERS

DENVER BRONCOS

OAKLAND RAIDERS

NATIONAL FOOTBALL CONFERENCE

NFC EAST TEAMS

NY GIANTS

PHILADELPHIA EAGLES

WASHINGTON REDSKINS

DALLAS COWBOYS

NFC NORTH TEAMS

CHICAGO BEARS

GREEN BAY PACKERS

DETROIT LIONS

MINNESOTA VIKINGS

NFC SOUTH TEAMS

NEW ORLEANS SAINTS

ATLANTA FALCONS

CAROLINA PANTHERS

TAMPA BAY BUCCANEERS

NFC WEST TEAMS

LOS ANGELES RAMS

SEATTLE SEAHAWKS

SAN FRANCISCO 49ers

ARIZONA CARDINALS

TOUCHDOWN (6 POINTS)

Scoring a touchdown is the purpose of football, aside from winning the entire game, and offers six points, which is the most that can be scored during a single play. Touchdowns are scored when a player can cross the other team’s goal line with the ball. Any member of the opposing team can score a touchdown. 

FEILD GOAL (3 POINTS)

This is the second best way to score in football, is worth 3 points, and can only be scored by the team’s kicker. Field goals are scored by kicking the ball through the goal posts.  

SAFETY (2 POINTS)

Sometimes the offensive team must line up close to their own goal because of a bad touchback or general whack ball placement. If that is the case and they are tacked in their own goal, the defensive team scores a safety, which is two points. That is the only time points can be scored without having possession of the ball. 

Point Conversions

After scoring a touchdown, the offense must choose between two different point conversions (conversion is just a slick way to say try) to try to score more points by making a field goal or another touchdown.  This attempt cannot be declined. Even if it could be declined, no team would because it’s a way to score more points without having to run up and down the field again. It’s like a chance to win free money.

Extra Point Conversion (1 Point)

This super popular conversion is a field goal from the two-yard line that is worth one point. Unless a game is tight, you will most likely see these attempted. 

Two Point Conversion (2 Points)

For this conversion, the offesne team lines up at their opponent’s two-yard line to attempt to make another touchdown. If the offense is able to cross the goal line via a run or pass, they are awarded two more points, hence the two-point conversion label. 

Quaterback

The quarterback is considered to be the most important player on a football team. The quarterback controls the offense as soon as the center snaps/throws it to him at the very beginning of each play. Once the quarterback has the ball the offense runs through them and they can decide to throw the ball to a wide receiver or any other player, hand the ball off to a running back or any other player, or choose to run the ball their self, which has become increasingly popular over the past decade when it was once unheard of.

TAILBACK/HALFBACK

If you are a general football watcher, you may not have heard of the tailback/halfback. That’s because the tailback/halfback, along with the fullback, are generally known as running backs. The tailback/halfback stands directly behind the quarterback and can easily have the ball handed to them by the quarterback to try to run the ball forward for a first down or as much possible yardage as possible. The tailback/halfback must be very quick and able to pivot on the drop of the dime to boost the chance of blowing by the other team’s defense.

FULLBACK

The fullback is the other running back and is located either in front of or to the side of the tailback. Their job to block for the running back or run the ball themselves. Since they do blocking they are usually larger than the typical; running back.

WIDE RECEIVER

The wide receivers, also known as “wide outs,” are lined up closest to the line of scrimmage, making them the widest members of the formation. There are usually two of them on the field, but there can be as many five of them on the field, depending on what the formation calls for. Wide receivers must be fast runners with the ability to break away from defensive coverage as they run down the field to catch a pass. Needless to say, they must be phenomenal catchers with hands like glue so they can make easy or impossible catches.

TIGHT END

The tight end is a hybrid of a wide receiver and offensive lineman. There is usually one on the field at a time and lined up next to either the left or right tackle. They most often use their size and strength to block for the quarterback or wide receiver along with having the skills to receive the ball like a wide receiver.

THE OFFENSIVE LINE

The offensive line, also known as the “O Line” is kind of the defense that plays on offense. That’s because the purpose of the offensive line is to protect and defend the offensive players, such as the quarterbacks, running backs, and wide receivers from the other team’s defense so they can score. A good defensive line is extremely important when a quarterback is a great passer but is not a dynamic athlete who can run from and didge coverage with ease.

CENTER

The center is at the exact center of the offense and stands right in front of the quarterback. They start every play by snapping the ball to the quarterback. After the ball is snapped to the quarterback, they are the heart of the offensive line and must block the defense from tacking the quarterback before they are able to throw of hand the ball off to another player.

GAURD

The guard is a member of the offensive line and their job is to block the defense from getting to the quarterback.  There are two guards, known as the left guard and right guard, and they stand on the opposite sides of the center.

CENTER

There are generally two tackles on the field and are known as the right tackle and left tackle because they line up on the right and left sides of the guards. As parts of the offensive line, they must block the defense from stopping the quarterback or other offensive players from completing their plays.

DEFENSIVE TACKLE

There are two defensive tackles that stand side by side at the center of the defense. They are supposed to stop running backs from advancing and apply pressure on the quarterback in hopes of tackling him or forcing a pass.

DEFENSIVE END

Defensive tackles stand on opposite sides of the defensive tackles. Their job is to stop the running back from having successful carries and to pressure the quarterback on passing plays.

MIDDLE LINEBACKER

Fittingly, the middle linebacker is called that because not only is he in the middle of the defense, they are in the middle of everything. They are supposed to have the versatility to stop runs, protect against the pass, and also put pressure on the quarterback when needed.

OUTSIDE LINEBACKER

The outside linebackers are behind the defensive ends and one ether side of the middle linebacker. They often blitz or perform pass coverage.

CORNERBACK

The cornerback is a fest, versatile defensive player who is the enemy of the pass. They often cover wide receivers with the intention of breaking up the pass or tackling pass catchers. Aside from that, they also have the speed needed to viciously try to sack the quarterback.

FREE SAFETY

The free safety is the player who is supposed to save the play if a running back, wide receiver, or any other offensive player gets a great play and breaks away from all other defensive players. The free safety is supposed to be the last line of defense.

STRONG SAFETY

The safety often covers the tight end or secondary wide receiver.

KICKER

Kicker this player is supposed to be an accurate and powerful with the ability to score points by kicking field goals or extra points.

PUNTER

This player has the job of kicking the ball to the other team after scoring a touchdown or failing to get a first down,

 

RETURN SPECIALIST

The offense must kick the ball to the other team after scoring a touchdown or to avoid blowing a fourth down, and the return specialist must catch the ball and use their speed to run the ball as far up the field as they can. The ultimate goal is to score a touch down, but that rarely happens.

 

LONG SNAPPER

Instead of a center, this player hikes the ball to the punter or kicker from a greater distance than a center would to a quarterback. After the ball is snapped the long snapper acts as a defensive lineman and protects the kicker from the defense so they can’t stop the punt, field goal, or extra point attempt.